Rikers Island is the Northern equivalent of Confederate monuments, but worse.

Always suspected that their we’re individuals conducting business in the Northen states and Northern governments that were partners in the business of slavery. I just couldn’t see Northern businesses, banks, and governments not finding some way to make a profit off slavery. 

AMERICAN INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION was caused by a need for ways of MANUFACTURING of raw material obtained by the South enslaved

 They developed new, large forms of business ENTERPRISE that involved the use of power-driven machinery to produce products and goods previously produced in the home or small shop. The machinery was grouped together in factories.

Part of the technology used in forming these new business enterprises came from England, however, increasingly they came from American inventors and scientists and mechanics.

Lowell textile mill

Although the Lowell mills had better conditions than British textile mills, workers still suffered long hours and excessive restrictions on their activities.

The first factory in the United States was begun after George Washington became President. In 1790, SAMUEL SLATER, a cotton spinner’s apprentice who left England the year before with the secrets of textile machinery, built a factory from memory to produce spindles of yarn.

The factory had 72 spindles, powered by by nine children pushing foot treadles, soon replaced by water power. Three years later, JOHN AND ARTHUR SHOFIELD, who also came from England, built the first factory to manufacture woolens in Massachusetts.

From these humble beginnings to the time of the Civil War there were over two million spindles in over 1200 cotton factories and 1500 woolen factories in the United States.

New England’s Mill towns supported by the work of the enslaved cotten picking of the South.

Textile manufacturing became the dominant industry in Massachusetts during the Industrial Revolution and helped promote further industrialization of the state.

Although other textile mills were established in Massachusetts in the late 18th and early 19th centuries, they were small and only employed a total of 100 people in the entire state.

Yet, these early mills gave local mechanics and engineers opportunities to learn rudimentary mill construction and inspired wealthy merchants in the state to think bigger and develop more sophisticated industrial plans.

One such wealthy merchant was Francis Cabot Lowell, a Newburyport native who formed the Boston Manufacturing Company, which later became the Boston Associates, and established his first mill in Waltham, Massachusetts in 1813.

Boston Manufacturing Company, 1813-1816, Waltham, Ma, engraving by Elijah Smith circa 19th century

Lowell’s mill used new types of technology, such as a water-driven power loom, and hired young adult women, known as “mill girls”, to run the equipment instead of children. The mill also did all of its manufacturing under one roof, with raw cotton entering at one end of the factory and finished cloth leaving at the other end.



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